Business Plan Series: Part 10 – Appendicies

We have reached the end of our Business Plan series with this final entry on “Appendicies”. Our next series will dive into the marketing plan for your business so be on the lookout for that next week.

So what exactly is in the appendix section of the business plan?

In short, it is the kitchen sink of things that are relevant to your business plan that add value for the reader. Here is a short list:

  • Photographs of products, equipment, facilities, etc.
  • Patent/Copyright/Trademark Documents
  • Legal Agreements
  • Marketing Materials
  • Research and/or studies
  • Operation Schedules
  • Organization Charts
  • Job Descriptions
  • Resumes of Key Personnel
  • Additional Financial Documentation

Photographs of products, equipment, facilities, etc

Here you want to include scanned photos of your physical products (if you have them), equipment you have that is important to the function of the business and the facilities you have your company. Facilities include production plants, corporate headquarters and any branch offices.

Patent/Copyright/Trademark Documents

In your business plan you discuss the value of your IP and this is where you include supporting documentation including patent applications and any copyright/trademark filings that support your statements in the business plan.

Legal Agreements

There are many legal documents you have for the business, but the most important would be your operating agreements, shareholder agreements, stock option plans and critical contracts that you mention in the business plan.

Marketing Materials

This is essentially your collateral materials that you use to sell your products/services. It should also include screenshots of your web site.

Research and/or studies

Here you can include any white papers you have written to cover research you have conducted, grant studies you have completed and any additional marketing research you have completed to support the case for your business.

Operation Schedules

Whatever you are creating there must be a schedule behind it to complete the product and/or roadmap it out. If you are building hard goods there are facilities operation schedules to meet production forecasts. If you are building software products you will have development schedules to bring the product from prototype to beta to production. That will be critical to match the forecasts in your business plan that you have projected for launch and subsequent customers coming online with the system.

Organization Charts

You might have put a small chart in the management section of the plan but this is where you can expand on the entire corporate structure including identification of key hires throughout your business plan’s timeline.

Job Descriptions

Linking to your organization chart, you will need to write job descriptions for all of the staff, current and future, in your company. This will help you identify any overlap that might be there but it will also show the reader that you have thoroughly thought out who needs to be working for the company and what they will be doing for your business.

Resumes of Key Personnel

Since you put smaller bios of your management team in the management section, this is the place to put the full resumes of the team to back up their bios and allow readers to get the full background of the team to feel confident in their inclusion in the business.

Additional Financial Documentation

Beyond the standard documents in the financial section (cash flow, balance sheet, income statement) you might want to include tax returns for the business for the last three years (if you have them). This should also include key elements in your financial model like the revenue sheet to show how you will met the projections you set out. You should also include expenses and salary costs so that readers know you are market competitive but not going crazy (as in too high or too low) to support the numbers you have projected.

Starting our next series – The Marketing Plan

Our next series will dive into a good supporting document for your business plan but it is much more internal. This is a critical document that will guide your sales and marketing function to create the right materials and identify the best campaigns for maximum customer acquisition. We will also discuss setting up your sales processes and sales organization to be the most effective.
If any of you out there have written a marketing plan I would love your thoughts, opinions and war stories to help our readers looking for advice and guidance in this area. Please e-mail me at steven_fisher at yahoo dot com.

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Business Plan Series: Part 9 – Financials

As we come toward the close of our business plan series we reach probably the most important section of the plan next to the Executive Summary, the Financials section.

Despite the work you put into creating a stellar business plan most investors will read your executive summary first and then dive right into your financials. Their reasoning is to see how well you have thought out your business model, when you will reach profitability and with a proper exit will it provide the return on investment they are looking for.

So what are the core elements of the financials section?
The financial plan section of the business plan consists of three financial statements, the income statement, the cash flow projection and the balance sheet and a brief explanation/analysis of these three statements.

The way I have done most of these in the past is to build my financial model to detail the relevant expenses and revenue streams to automatically create these statements but also allow me to model the business and change things based on various assumptions.

When it comes to expenses think of your business expenses as broken into two categories; your start up expenses and your operating expenses. Startup expenses are all the costs of getting your business up and running go into the start up expenses category. Operating expenses are the costs of keeping your business running. Think of these as the things you’re going to have to pay each month. Your list of operating expenses may include salaries (yours and staff salaries), rent or mortage payments, telecommunications, utilities, promotion, loan payments and office supplies.

That is just a partial list of things to get you started. Your operating expenses are the costs of what it will take to keep your business running each month. This is also called your “burn rate”. If you take your startup costs and six months of operating costs that is the general rule in how much money you will need to get your business going long enough to get revenue coming in to get you cash flow positive.

Beyond the core financial statements
Many startups can take longer because they have development and staff costs that are high and have such an extensive burn rate that they need outside investment. This is why your projections and return on investment are so important for others to understand what they are getting themselves into. About.com sums it up nicely with what you will need:

  • A short-term projection of the first year, broken down by month
  • A three-year projection, broken down by year
  • A five-year projection. Don’t include this one in the business plan, since the further into the future you project, the harder it is to predict; however, have it available in case an investor asks for it.

Scenarios
Another thing you must consider in your financials is the case of scenarios. Scenarios are projections that show what the business would look like if certain things happened. Things like no customers for a while vs. a quick rush of new customers, rapid development costs vs. slower development costs.

You really only want to show two scenarios

Funding Requirements
For many of you going out and getting external funding will not only be required at some point it will be mandatory in order to meet the goals you have set out to achieve. From your financial model you should write in your summary and be able to show on your projections the following:

  • Funds required to start the business
  • Anticipated funding over the next two, three, and even five years
  • Use of funding
  • A timeline for funding

Good link love
Here are some excellent links on financials:
Michael’s Big Idea
SCORE Templates
About.com – Financial Projections

In our final section, Part 10 – Appendices, we will discuss all the stuff you would love to have put in your business plan that would add value but made it a 160 page plan instead of a 25 page plan. These documents are the things that will be critical as you move through the review and due diligence process with potential investors.

If you have thoughts on what you would have done with your financials and what advice you can share with others please leave it in the comments.

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